(Personal) Safety & Security.
How should one address personal safety concerns while travelling? The issue is a somewhat complex one, but primarily a function of three variables: individual circumstances, areas of travel, and personal perceptions:
Individual Circumstances: Generally speaking, a woman is more at risk than a man, a weak person more at risk than a strong one, and a tourist more at risk than a local; these are things that we can do little about, other than recognize them as risk factors and adjust our expectations — and preparations — accordingly. Other factors are more under our control. People who appear confident, pay attention to their surroundings, and move briskly & purposefully are less likely to attract trouble than those who seem nervous, inattentive, or aimless.
Areas of Travel: Some parts of the world are inherently more risky than others. These locations (and their boundaries) change with the political winds, so apprise yourself of the current situation before venturing into any regions that you do not know to be politically stable. The consular offices of major governments are good sources of current information in this regard: you'll find links to comprehensive British and American sources on the TraveLinks page, in the Places to Visit section.
Personal Perceptions: Different people exhibit different levels of risk tolerance. Some are comfortable in (or give little thought to) quite risky situations; other see dragons around every corner.
Additionally, there are powerful political and commercial forces that find advantage in frightened people, and we live in times when increased communication capabilities and decreased analysis skills make this an even greater concern than it has historically been. Few people these days take the trouble to educate themselves as to the true nature of any risks presented by the various scenarios that are being "sold" to them.
An example: the concerns that many have about terrorist aviation threats are, quite simply, irrational. If terrorists successfully hijacked and crashed one of America's regular commercial flights every single week, the chance of your being on a crashed plane at some time over the course of your life would be approximately 1 in 135,000. But your lifetime chance of being killed by lightning is about 1 in 35,000. So you are almost four times more likely to die due to a lightning strike than a commercial plane crash, even given the ridiculous scenario of weekly hijack occurrences. The real danger — the one that you could reasonably be concerned about — is the drive to the airport: your lifetime chance of dying in a motor accident (based on 2003 figures) is about 1 in 83, a couple of thousand times more likely than even the greatly exaggerated hijacking scenario imagined above! Terrorists have inflicted far more damage on their enemies by disrupting, delaying, and complicating the world's commercial air traffic than by any actual plane hijackings.
I don't mean to imply that there are no risks associated with travel. There are. There are risks associated with every step — and every breath — that you take. But these risks are vastly smaller than many people choose to believe. If you are comfortable with driving to the airport, you should have no greater concerns about the remainder of your journey. Take reasonable precautions as with every other aspect of your life, but don't live in fear of nonexistent dragons.
Some Safety Suggestions.
I discuss quite a few security-related concerns — from security pouches & cash management to whistles, flashlights, & door stops — throughout this site, in the appropriate sections. Here are a few that are not so conveniently classified, but deserve your attention:
Hotel fires are frightening things (and a much more likely cause of your demise than "terrorists"), yet most people who perish in them could easily have saved themselves. Knowing what to do (and doing it) in such a situation is the single most important element of survival, but the correct behaviour is not at all obvious; most folks, in fact, find it counterintuitive. So I can't recommend this too strongly: take a few minutes to learn how to survive a hotel fire!
You are much less likely ever to be involved in a serious plane accident than a hotel fire, and even if you are, the odds in favour of your survival are actually surprisingly good. But of the people who do lose their lives in plane crashes, experts estimate that about 30% could have survived had they known how to handle the situation. If you'd like to become one of the more knowledgeable passengers, take the time to read how to survive a plane crash!
"To make God laugh, tell him your plans." advises an old Yiddish proverb. Most problems can be avoided with forethought and preparation, and if acute appendicitis strikes in the back of nowhere, you'll be glad that you thought about travel insurance before venturing afar. Check your regular policies, which may (but often do not) cover you when far from home. If they don't, think about specific trip insurance to protect your health and savings. If you're under 35, your best deal can probably be found at STA Travel; pretty much everyone else will do better at InsureMyTrip.com, which gets quotes from multiple insurers with a single, simple form.
Be especially careful when purchasing "antiques", as you may well be dealing with an art thief, museum burglar, or grave robber. Reputable citizens do get arrested for trafficking in stolen antiquities. Anyway, do you really need something more to carry? Take a photo of it.
Understand the local currency thoroughly. Practice identifying the various denominations (coins and notes), and making change. Fumbling with change invites people to "help" you (and themselves); it also draws attention to your tourist status.
Learn useful local phrases. "Please", "thank you", and "excuse me" should go without saying, but you'll also find "Qif! Harami!" more effective than "Stop! Thief!" if someone grabs your purse in the Qasbah. Plus even a modest attempt to use the local language enhances your status as a "real person" — less of an outsider, and someone to be abused.
Know how to reach your local embassy. Should this ever be needed, it will probably be due to a lost or stolen passport, but it's also the go-to place in case of natural disasters or coups d'état. Some countries maintain special telephone hotlines for their citizens abroad (for example, the U.S. State Department can be reached at +1 888 407 4747).
Personal Safety Items for Travellers.
When it comes to "individual circumstances", I'm at the less risky end of the spectrum: I'm a six-foot male in not-too-greatly-deteriorated physical condition; I walk briskly, take stairs in preference to elevators, pay attention to my surroundings, and am familiar with basic concepts of self defense. (Like everyone else, though, I still look like a tourist when far from home).
So I don't take personal safety greatly into account when packing for travel. But I don't ignore it either: I regularly use a security pouch wherever I'm likely to be recognized as non-local, carry a tiny but loud whistle, keep handy a small, high-powered flashlight (torch), and make occasional use of a door stop in locations where room security is less than I would prefer. Each of these items is discussed more fully in the annotated packing list section of this site (the pouch on the Documents page, the remainder on the Tools page).
Consequently, I am unable to offer much in the way of personal experience when it comes to any items mentioned below. They are included because I have subjected them to at least a cursory investigation, they appear to be functional as described, and I believe that some readers of OneBag.com will find them of interest.
I cover this topic more thoroughly elsewhere on this site, though it's worth an additional mention here, as many (especially those in cars) consider a mobile phone to be an important safety item. But for safety's sake, please don't use one while you're driving!
Travel Smoke Detector.
Many travellers, especially those venturing to less developed locations, may wish to add the extra protection of their own (portable) smoke detectors. A particularly travel-friendly one (pictured at right) is the clever FlareSafe, which combines a smoke detector, LED torch (flashlight), and 110dB emergency signalling alarm in a single convenient device — 1.75" (4.5cm) in diameter by 5.7" (14.5cm) in length — weighing 7oz (200g) with batteries and lanyard. It incorporates a sophisticated battery management system to make reliable use of its two regular (AA) and one lithium (CR123A) cells, and can be carried as a personal safety alarm: simultaneously depressing two buttons sets off the piercing alarm. The FlareSafe meets the British Standard for domestic smoke detectors (BS5446-1:2000).